A network analysis of burnout subtypes, early maladaptive schemas and schema modes
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the research was to explore the relationship between different clinical subtypes of burnout and Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and Schema Modes (SMs) using network analysis. METHODS: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 participants. Three questionnaires were used: the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36), the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3) and the Schema Mode Inventory 1.1 (SMI). RESULTS: Network analysis for all YSQ-S3, SMI and BCSQ-36 scales was performed. Centrality measures and bridge nodes analysis show several schemas and modes which could have a considerable role in the activation of the burnout pathology: Punitiveness, Unrelenting Standards, Subjugation, and Dependence & Incompetence schemas, as well as Demanding Parent, Detached Protector, Angry Child, and Self-Aggrandizer modes. The role of the Healthy Adult mode in the network is controversial. CONCLUSION: The results of the network analysis give ideas about the unmet emotional needs of individuals with higher burnout. Self-compassion, realistic standards, assertiveness, and healthy self-reliance could be important foci for burned-out employees. Strengthening the Healthy Adult mode by providing a self-compassion dimension seems to be crucial for resolving burnout issues.